The first great duty, not only of every lodge, but of every Mason, is to see that the landmarks of the Order shall never be impaired.
— Albert Mackey (1856), The Principles of Masonic Law
Dr. Albert G. Mackey's list of 25 landmarks in 1858:
1) The modes of recognition.
2) The division of symbolic masonry into three degrees.
3) The legend of the third degree.
4) The government of the fraternity by a presiding officer called a Grand Master.
5) The prerogative of the Grand Master to preside over every assembly of the Craft.
6) The prerogative of the Grand Master to grant dispensations for conferring degrees at irregular times.
7) The prerogative of the Grand Master to give dispensations for opening and holding lodges.
8) The prerogative of the Grand Master to make masons at sight.
9) The necessity of masons to congregate in lodges.
10) The government of the craft, when so congregated in a lodge by a Master and two Wardens.
11) The necessity that every lodge, when congregated, should be duly tiled.
12) The right of every mason to be represented in all general meetings of the craft and to instruct his representatives.
13) The right of every mason to appeal from the decision of his brethren in lodge convened, to the Grand Lodge or General Assembly of Masons.
14) The right of every mason to visit and sit in every regular lodge.
15) No visitor, unknown as a Mason, can enter a lodge without first passing an examination according to ancient usage.
16) No lodge can interfere in the business of another Lodge, nor give degrees to brethren who are members of other Lodges.
17) Every freemason is amenable to the laws and regulations of the masonic jurisdiction in which he resides.
18) Qualifications of a candidate: that he shall be a man, unmultilated, free born, and of mature age.
19) A belief in the existence of God.
20) Subsidiary to this belief in God, is the belief in a resurrection to a future life.
21) A “Book of the Law” shall constitute an indispensable part of the furniture of every lodge.
22) The equality of all masons.
23) The secrecy of the institution.
24) The foundation of a speculative science, for purposes of religious or moral teaching.
25) These landmarks can never be changed.
Roscoe Pound (1870-1964) list of 7 Landmarks: